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Axel Gonzalez
Axel Gonzalez

Accumulation [TOP]

The proposed regulations would amend the terms of the Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE) plan to offer $0 monthly payments for any individual borrower who makes less than roughly $30,600 annually and any borrower in a family of four who makes less than about $62,400. The regulations would also cut in half monthly payments on undergraduate loans for borrowers who do not otherwise have a $0 payment in this plan. The proposed regulations would also ensure that borrowers stop seeing their balances grow due to the accumulation of unpaid interest after making their monthly payments.


The climate is not the weather. Weather can be experienced, but to understand climate, media is necessary. As the computational capacity to manage meteorological data emerged in the middle of the twentieth century, so did the means of visualizing and disseminating these new forms of complex information. Scientific knowledge of global and regional climate systems has developed through expressive, technical, and speculative images. Media provide access to processes of accumulation that are endemic to the contemporary socio-biotic condition of climate instability. If media do not precisely determine our situation, in the wake of Friedrich Kittler, they nonetheless provide access to the material and cultural outlines of possible futures.

The current epoch is one of accumulation: not only of capital (primitive or otherwise) but also of raw, often unruly material; from plastic in the ocean and carbon in the atmosphere to people, buildings and cities. Of anxiety, and of a recognition of the difficulty of finding effective means for intervening in the behaviors and practices that engender these patterns. Alongside these material accumulations, image making practices embedded within the disciplines of art and architecture have proven to be fertile, mobile and capacious. Images of accumulation help open up the climate to cultural inquiry and political mobilization.

To constrain global warming, we must strongly curtail greenhouse gas emissions and capture excess atmospheric carbon dioxide1,2. Regrowing natural forests is a prominent strategy for capturing additional carbon3, but accurate assessments of its potential are limited by uncertainty and variability in carbon accumulation rates2,3. To assess why and where rates differ, here we compile 13,112 georeferenced measurements of carbon accumulation. Climatic factors explain variation in rates better than land-use history, so we combine the field measurements with 66 environmental covariate layers to create a global, one-kilometre-resolution map of potential aboveground carbon accumulation rates for the first 30 years of natural forest regrowth. This map shows over 100-fold variation in rates across the globe, and indicates that default rates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)4,5 may underestimate aboveground carbon accumulation rates by 32 per cent on average and do not capture eight-fold variation within ecozones. Conversely, we conclude that maximum climate mitigation potential from natural forest regrowth is 11 per cent lower than previously reported3 owing to the use of overly high rates for the location of potential new forest. Although our data compilation includes more studies and sites than previous efforts, our results depend on data availability, which is concentrated in ten countries, and data quality, which varies across studies. However, the plots cover most of the environmental conditions across the areas for which we predicted carbon accumulation rates (except for northern Africa and northeast Asia). We therefore provide a robust and globally consistent tool for assessing natural forest regrowth as a climate mitigation strategy.

The literature-based dataset (both raw and filtered) and detailed descriptions of the environmental covariates are all available at -db/groa, where GROA stands for Global Restoration Opportunity Assessment. Data are also archived on Zenodo at ). The Supplementary Information includes metadata for the literature-derived dataset (Supplementary Table S3, Supplementary sections 4 and 5). We also include data on country-level estimates (see Supplementary Data 1). Spatial data for both aboveground carbon accumulation rates and uncertainty (scaled and unscaled by mean pixel value), as well as belowground carbon accumulation rates can be downloaded from Global Forest Watch ( ). S.C.C.-P. and N.H. welcome discussions around potential collaborations, and the data are freely available. Source data are provided with this paper.

Observed variation in total plant carbon accumulation rates and soil carbon accumulation rates (mean 95% confidence intervals) from the literature-derived dataset. We did not have plant biomass data for subtropical and tropical conifer forests.

a, Map of predicted carbon accumulation rates in Colombia, as an example. b, Map of predicted rates filtered to the area of opportunity in Griscom et al.3 to demonstrate where these rates might apply.

This is the elevated flat surface ice accumulation. It is not radial/line ice. Radial/line ice is typically 39% of the elevated flat surface ice. For more information on this, see this module.

The Accumulation and Distribution of IRA's bulletin articles and related statistical tables provide detailed information about trends in the accumulation and distributions of IRAs by taxpayers. These annual statistics on types of IRA plans are based on information collected from matched samples of Form 1040, U.S Individual Income Tax Returns; Forms 5498, IRA Contribution Information; and Forms 1099-R, Distributions from Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing plans, IRAs, Insurance Contract, etc.

Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

However, the assessment of marine plastic pollution is relatively recent, and extensive areas of the ocean remain yet unexplored, including regional semi-enclosed seas located in basins with intense use of plastic. This is the case of the Mediterranean Sea. Its shores house around 10% of the global coastal population (ca. 100 million people within the 10-km coastal strip [12]). The basin constitutes one of worlds busiest shipping routes [13], and receives waters from densely populated river catchments (e.g., Nile, Ebro, and Po). Furthermore, the Mediterranean Sea is only connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar and has a water residence time as long as a century [14]. Estimating both terrestrial and maritime inputs, Lebreton and coworkers modeled the transport and distribution of floating debris in the ocean [8]. The model simulations identified the Mediterranean Sea as a potentially important accumulation zone at the global scale. Recently, the calibration of this model using a global dataset was applied to estimate the surface plastic load in the Mediterranean Sea at 23,150 tons [6].

We found plastic debris in all surface net tows carried out in the Mediterranean Sea. Five different types of plastic items were identified (pellets/granules, films, fishing threads, foam, fragments), with the majority of items being fragments of larger rigid objects (87.7%, e.g. bottles, caps) and thin films (5.9%; e.g. pieces of bags or wrappings) (Fig. 1). Eighty-three percent of the total number of items collected in our nets was smaller than 5 mm in length, commonly referred to as microplastics. The shape of the plastic size distribution was similar to those found in the accumulation zones in the open ocean, with a gradual increase in plastic abundance toward small sizes and a gap below 1 mm (Fig. 1), suggesting removal of plastic items below 1 mm in size from the surface as suggested for the open ocean [5]. However, some differences become apparent in the lowest and highest parts of the size distribution. The proportion of plastic below 2 mm was lower in the Mediterranean Sea than in the open ocean, while the relative abundance of plastic in all size bins above 20 mm was higher in the Mediterranean.

The size distribution of plastic debris in the Mediterranean (n = 3,901 plastic items; this study) is compared to those measured for plastic accumulation regions in the open ocean (n = 4,184 plastic items; [5]). Both plastic size distributions were obtained using the same methodology. Horizontal axis shows the size limits of the bins in logarithmic scale. Because the width of the bins is not uniform, the vertical axis (i.e., normalized abundance of plastic) is shown as number of plastic items divided by the width of the bin (in millimeters). In the comparison of the plastic size distributions in Mediterranean and open-ocean waters, note the logarithmic scale of the vertical axis. The percentages (in abundance) of plastic types (pellets/granules, films, fishing threads, foam, fragments) found in the Mediterranean Sea are shown in the chart at the top right corner. 041b061a72


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